Goalkeeper (association football) | Wikipedia audio article

Goalkeeper (association football) | Wikipedia audio article


The goalkeeper, often shortened to keeper
or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the
sport. The goalkeeper’s primary role is to prevent
the opposing team from scoring (moving the ball over the defended goal-line within the
frame of the goal). This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving
into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity
of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able
to use their hands, making them (outside throw-ins) the only players on the field permitted to
handle the ball. The special status of goalkeepers is indicated
by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates. The back-pass rule prevents goalkeepers handling
direct passes back to them from teammates. Goalkeepers usually perform goal kicks, and
also give commands to their defense during corner kicks, direct and indirect free kicks,
and marking. Goalkeepers play an important role in directing
on field strategy as they have an unrestricted view of the entire pitch, giving them a unique
perspective on play development. The goalkeeper is the only required position
of a team. If they are injured or sent off, a substitute
goalkeeper has to take their place, otherwise an outfield player must take the ejected keeper’s
place in goal. In order to replace a goalkeeper who is sent
off, a team usually substitutes an outfield player for the backup keeper (thus effectively
the red card and substitution takes out two of the starting eleven players). They then play the remainder of the match
with nine outfield players. If a team does not have a substitute goalkeeper,
or they have already used all of their permitted substitutions for the match, an outfield player
has to take the dismissed goalkeeper’s place and wear the goalkeeper shirt. The squad number for a first choice goalkeeper
is generally number 1, although they may wear any jersey number between 1 and 99.==History==Association football, like many sports, has
experienced many changes in tactics resulting in the generation and elimination of different
positions. Goalkeeper is the only position that is certain
to have existed since the codification of the sport. Even in the early days of organised football,
when systems were limited or non-existent and the main idea was for all players to attack
and defend, teams had a designated member to play as the goalkeeper. The earliest account of football teams with
player positions comes from Richard Mulcaster in 1581 and does not specify goalkeepers. The earliest specific reference to keeping
goal comes from Cornish Hurling in 1602. According to Carew: “they pitch two bushes
in the ground, some eight or ten foot asunder; and directly against them, ten or twelve score
off, other twayne in like distance, which they term their Goals. One of these is appointed by lots, to the
one side, and the other to his adverse party. There is assigned for their guard, a couple
of their best stopping Hurlers”. Other references to scoring goals begin in
English literature in the early 16th century; for example, in John Day’s play The Blind
Beggar of Bethnal Green (performed circa 1600; published 1659): “I’ll play a gole at camp-ball”
(an extremely violent variety of football, popular in East Anglia). Similarly, in a 1613 poem, Michael Drayton
refers to “when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe”. It seems inevitable that wherever a game has
evolved goals, some form of goalkeeping must also be developed. David Wedderburn refers to what has been translated
from Latin as to “keep goal” in 1633, though this does not necessarily imply a fixed goalkeeper
position. The word “goal-keeper” is used in the novel
Tom Brown’s School Days (published in 1857, but set in the 1830s). The author is here referring to an early form
of rugby football: You will see in the first place, that the sixth-form boy, who has the
charge of goal, has spread his force (the goal-keepers) so as to occupy the whole space
behind the goal-posts, at distances of about five yards apart; a safe and well-kept goal
is the foundation of all good play. The word “goal-keeper” appeared in the Sheffield
Rules of 1867, but the term did not refer to a designated player, but rather to “that
player on the defending side who for the time being is nearest to his own goal”. The goal-keeper, thus defined, did not enjoy
any special handling privileges.The FA’s first Laws of the Game of 1863 did not make any
special provision for a goalkeeper, with any player being allowed to catch or knock-on
the ball. Handling the ball was completely forbidden
(for all players) in 1870. The next year, 1871, the laws were amended
to introduce the goalkeeper and specify that the keeper was allowed to handle the ball
“for the protection of his goal”. The restrictions on the ability of the goalkeeper
to handle the ball were changed several times in subsequent revisions of the laws: 1871: the keeper may handle the ball only
“for the protection of his goal”. 1873: the keeper may not “carry” the ball. 1883: the keeper may not carry the ball for
more than two steps. 1887: the keeper may not handle the ball in
the opposition’s half. 1901: the keeper may handle the ball for any
purpose (not only in defence of the goal). 1912: the keeper may handle the ball only
in the penalty area. 1931: the keeper may take up to four steps
(rather than two) while carrying the ball. 1992: the keeper may not handle the ball after
it has been deliberately kicked to him/her by a team-mate. 1997: the keeper may not handle the ball for
more than six seconds.Initially, goalkeepers typically played between the goalposts and
had limited mobility, except when trying to save opposition shots. Throughout the years, the role of the goalkeeper
has evolved, due to the changes in systems of play, to become more active. The goalkeeper is the only player in association
football allowed to use their hands to control the ball (other than during throw-ins). During the 1935-1936 English football season,
young Sunderland AFC goalkeeper of the team, Jimmy Thorpe, died as a result of a kick in
the head and chest after he had picked up the ball following a backpass in a game against
Chelsea at Roker Park. He continued to take part until the match
finished, but collapsed at home afterwards and died in hospital four days later from
diabetes mellitus and heart failure ‘accelerated by the rough usage of the opposing team’ his
tragic end to Thorpe’s career led to a change in the rules, where players were no longer
allowed to raise their foot to a goalkeeper when he had control of the ball in his arms.Due
to several time-wasting techniques which were used by goalkeepers, such as bouncing the
ball on the ground or throwing it in the air and then catching it again, in the 1960s,
the Laws of the game were revised further, and the goalkeeper was given a maximum of
four steps to travel while holding, bouncing or throwing the ball in the air and catching
it again, without having to release it into play. The FIFA Board later also devised an anti-parrying
rule, saying that such deliberate parrying for the purpose of evading the Law was to
be regarded also as holding the ball.In 1992, the International Football Association Board
made changes in the laws of the game that affected goalkeepers – notably the back-pass
rule, which prohibits goalkeepers from handling the ball when receiving a deliberate pass
from a teammate that is made with their feet. This rule change was made to discourage time-wasting
and overly defensive play after the 1990 FIFA World Cup which was described as exceedingly
dull, rife with back-passing and goalkeepers holding the ball. Also, goalkeepers would frequently drop the
ball and dribble it around, only to pick it up again once opponents came closer to put
them under pressure, a typical time-wasting technique. Therefore, another rule was introduced at
the same time as the back-pass rule. This rule prohibits the goalkeeper from handling
the ball again once he or she has released it for play; an offence results in an indirect
free kick to the opposition. Furthermore any player negating the spirit
of the new rule would be likely to be cautioned for unsporting behaviour and punished by an
indirect free-kick.On 1 July 1997, FIFA decided to extend the back-pass rule by applying it
also to throw-ins from defenders to their own goalkeeper; in order to prevent further
time-wasting, FIFA also established that if a goalkeeper holds the ball for more than
five or six seconds the referee must adjudge this as time-wasting and award an indirect
free-kick to the opposing team.==Laws of the Game and general play==The position of goalkeeper is the only position
in the game which is technically distinct from the others in the course of normal play. The Laws of the Game distinguish the goalkeeper
from the other players in several ways, most significantly exempting them from the prohibition
on handling the ball, though only within their own penalty area. Once a goalkeeper has control of the ball
in their hands, opponents are not permitted to challenge them. Goalkeepers have a specialised role as the
sole defender in penalty kicks and penalty shoot-outs. Goalkeepers are required to wear distinct
colours from other players, and are permitted to wear caps and tracksuit bottoms.The Laws
mandate that one player on the team must be designated as the goalkeeper at all times,
meaning that if a goalkeeper is sent off or injured and unable to continue another player
must assume the goalkeeper position. The Laws allow for teams to change the player
designated as goalkeeper at stoppages in play, but in practice this is rarely exercised. The Laws place no restrictions on a goalkeeper
leaving their penalty area and acting as an ordinary player, though generally goalkeepers
stay close to their goal throughout the match. Goalkeepers routinely perform extension dives. To execute this, they push off the ground
with the foot nearest to the ball, launching themselves into a horizontal position. At this point, the ball may be caught or parried
away from the goal. In the latter case, a good goalkeeper will
attempt to ensure that the rebound cannot be taken by a player of the opposing team,
although this is not always possible.==Responsibilities==The tactical responsibilities of goalkeepers
include: To keep goal by physically blocking attempted
shots with any part of their body. The keeper is permitted to play the ball anywhere
on the field, but may not handle the ball using hands or outstretched arms outside his/her
penalty area. To organise the team’s defenders during defensive
set pieces such as free kicks and corners. In the case of free kicks, this includes picking
the numbers and the organisation of a defensive man “wall”. The wall serves to provide a physical barrier
to the incoming ball, but some goalkeepers position their wall in a certain position
to tempt the kick-taker to a certain type of shot. Occasionally, goalkeepers may opt to dispense
with the wall. Some goalkeepers are also entrusted with the
responsibility of picking markers while defending at set pieces. To pick out crosses and attempted long passes
either by collecting them in flight or punching them clear if heavily challenged by opposing
strikers.Although goalkeepers have special privileges, including the ability to handle
the ball in the penalty area, they are otherwise subject to the same rules as any other player.===Goalkeepers in playmaking and attack===Goalkeepers are not required to stay in the
penalty area; they may get involved in play anywhere on the pitch, and it is common for
them to act as an additional defender (or ‘sweeper’) during certain passages of the
game. Goalkeepers with a long throwing range or
accurate long-distance kicks may be able to quickly create attacking positions for a team
and generate goal-scoring chances from defensive situations, a tactic known as the long ball.====Sweeper-keeper====Gyula Grosics from the Hungary “Golden Team”
of the 1950s was thought to be the first goalkeeper to play as the ‘sweeper-keeper’. Tommy Lawrence has also been credited with
revolutionising the role of the goalkeeper by effectively acting as an 11th outfield
player. The rushing playing style used by Liverpool
legend Bruce Grobbelaar seen during the 1980s–90s makes him one of the original sweeper-keepers
of the modern era. René Higuita was another who became known
for his unorthodox, skillful but sometimes reckless techniques. As of 2011, Manuel Neuer has been described
as a sweeper-keeper due to his speed and unique style of play which occasionally includes
him acting as a sweeper for his team by rushing off his line to anticipate opposing forwards
who have beaten the offside trap. With his excellent ball control and distribution,
which enables him to start plays from the back, he has said he could play in the German
third division as a centre-back if he wanted to. Hugo Lloris of Tottenham Hotspur and France,
and former goalkeepers Fabien Barthez and Edwin van der Sar, have also been described
as sweeper-keepers, while Claudio Bravo and Ederson Moraes of Manchester City have even
been described as playmakers in the media.====Goalscorers====Some goalkeepers have scored goals. Other than by accident when a long kicked
clearance reaches the other end of the field and evades the opposing goalkeeper with the
aid of strong winds and/or unexpected bounces, this most commonly occurs where a goalkeeper
has rushed up to the opposite end of the pitch to give his team a numerical advantage in
attack, leaving his own goal undefended. As such, it is normally only done late in
a game at set-pieces where the consequences of scoring far outweigh those of conceding
a further goal, such as for a team trailing in a knock-out tournament. Some goalkeepers, such as Higuita, Rogério
Ceni, Hans-Jörg Butt and José Luis Chilavert, are also expert set-piece takers. These players may take their team’s attacking
free kicks or penalties. Ceni, São Paulo’s long-time custodian, has
scored 100 goals in his career, more than many outfield players.==Equipment and attire==Goalkeepers must wear kit that distinguishes
them clearly from other players and match officials, as this is all that the FIFA Laws
of the Game require. Some goalkeepers have received recognition
for their match attire, like Lev Yashin of the Soviet Union, who was nicknamed the “Black
Spider” for his distinctive all-black outfit; Klaus Lindenberger of Austria, who designed
his own variation of a clown’s costume; Jorge Campos of Mexico, who was popular for his
colourful attire; Raul Plassmann of Cruzeiro Esporte Clube and his all-yellow outfit; and
Gábor Király for wearing a pair of grey tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts.Although
it was initially more common for goalkeepers to wear long-sleeved jerseys, recently several
goalkeepers, such as Gianluigi Buffon, have also been known to wear short-sleeves.Most
goalkeepers also wear gloves to improve their grip on the ball, and to protect themselves
from injury. Some gloves now include rigid plastic spines
down each finger to help prevent injuries such as jammed, fractured, and sprained fingers. Though gloves are not mandatory attire, it
is uncommon for goalkeepers to opt against them due to the advantages they offer. At UEFA Euro 2004, Portuguese goalkeeper Ricardo
famously took off his gloves during the quarter-final penalty shoot-out against England, knowing
he was the next taker for his side. He then went on to save Darius Vassell’s penalty
using his bare hands before scoring his own kick to win it for Portugal.Though rare, goalkeepers
are permitted to wear visored headgear (such as a baseball cap) to minimize glare from
bright sunlight, or a knit cap to insulate from cold weather, at any time if they elect
to do so. After recovering from a serious skull fracture
that he had sustained in 2006, Petr Čech has subsequently worn a rugby style headguard
during his matches.==Careers and injuries==
Because they play a less physically demanding position that requires significantly less
running, goalkeepers often have longer playing careers than outfield players, many not retiring
until their late thirties or early forties. Notably, Peter Shilton played for thirty-one
years between 1966 and 1997 before retiring at the age of forty-seven.In general, goalkeepers
can sustain any injury to which their outfield counterparts are vulnerable. Common lower and upper extremity injuries
include cartilage tears, anterior cruciate ligament tears, and knee sprains. On the other hand, goalkeepers rarely fall
victim to fatigue-related injuries, such as leg cramps, pulled hamstrings, and dehydration.==Records==Goalkeepers are crucial in penalty shootouts. The record for most penalties saved in a shootout
is held by Helmuth Duckadam of Steaua București. Duckadam defended four consecutive penalties
in the 1986 European Cup Final against Barcelona. Stefano Tacconi is the only goalkeeper to
have won all official club competitions for which he was eligible.José Luis Chilavert
is the only goalkeeper to score a hat-trick (three goals in a game), doing so through
penalty kicks. Rogério Ceni has scored the most goals for
a goalkeeper, having scored his hundredth goal in official games on 27 March 2011. Ceni scored his goals through free kicks and
penalty kicks.Gianluigi Buffon is the only goalkeeper to have won the UEFA Club Footballer
of the Year Award. Oliver Kahn holds the record for most UEFA
Best Club Goalkeeper and Best European Goalkeeper Awards with four. Iker Casillas holds the record for most appearances
by a goalkeeper in the FIFPro World XI and in the UEFA Team of the Year and most IFFHS
World’s Best Goalkeeper Awards, alongside Buffon, winning the award for five consecutive
years between 2008 and 2012. Casillas holds the record for the most clean
sheets in UEFA Champions League history.At the international level, Dino Zoff has remained
unbeaten for the longest period of time, whilst Walter Zenga holds the record for longest
unbeaten run in a FIFA World Cup tournament at five hundred seventeen minutes. Gianluigi Buffon, Fabien Barthez and Iker
Casillas hold the record for fewest goals conceded by a winning goalkeeper in a World
Cup tournament at two each. Buffon is the only World Cup–winning goalkeeper
not to have conceded a goal in open play throughout the entire tournament, one goal having resulted
from an own goal after a free kick, the other from a penalty. Fabien Barthez and Peter Shilton hold the
record for most clean sheets in World Cup matches with ten each Mohamed Al-Deayea holds
the record for most international caps by a goalkeeper with one hundred seventy-eight
official appearances for Saudi Arabia.Pascal Zuberbühler holds the record for fewest goals
conceded by a goalkeeper in a World Cup tournament and holds the record for most successive matches
at an international tournament without conceding a goal with five. He did not concede a goal in four hundred
sixty-three minutes of World Cup play against France, Korea, and Togo—making Switzerland
the only team in the history of the tournament not to concede a goal in normal time. Tim Howard holds the record for most saves
made in a FIFA World Cup match, with sixteen against Belgium in the 2014 Round of 16. Oliver Kahn is the only goalkeeper to have
won the Adidas Golden Ball for the best player of the tournament in a World Cup (in the 2002
competition); Lev Yashin is the only goalkeeper to have won the Ballon d’Or. Gianluca Pagliuca of Italy became the first
goalkeeper to be sent off in a World Cup Finals match, dismissed for handling outside his
area against Norway in 1994. His team went on to win 1–0 and reached
the final before losing to Brazil in a penalty shootout, in which he became the first goalkeeper
ever to stop a penalty in a final shootout.Iker Casillas holds both the record for fewest
goals conceded in a European Championship with one in 2012) and the record for longest
unbeaten run at a European Championship, beating the previous record held by Dino Zoff. He also holds the records for most international
clean sheets (one hundred two) by a male goalkeeper, beating the previous record held by Edwin
van der Sar (seventy-two), and became the first goalkeeper in history, male or female,
to keep one hundred clean sheets at international level in 2015; he also shares the overall
record for the most international clean sheets along with Hope Solo. Buffon holds the record for most minutes without
conceding a goal in European Championship Qualifying matches at six hundred forty-four.===
Highest fees===As of August 2018, the most expensive goalkeeper
of all time was Kepa Arrizabalaga following his 2018 €80 million (£71 million) transfer
to Chelsea from Athletic Bilbao.==See also==
FIFA World Cup All-Star Teams Golden Glove awards
List of goalscoring goalkeepers Association football positions
List of most expensive association football transfers
IFFHS World’s Best Goalkeeper Best European Goalkeeper
The Best FIFA Goalkeeper UEFA Best Club Goalkeeper Award==Notes

About the Author: Garret Beatty

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